How Frequently Does an Apartment Need to Be Repainted?

Renting an apartment comes with a couple of maintenance requirements similar to that of owning a house. Periodic repainting of interior ceilings and walls retains a rental appearing clean and fresh. How often a flat has to be repainted, and from whom, depends on certain factors, such as the amount of wear and tear and what is stipulated in the lease.

Apartment Repainting Requirements

State and municipal laws vary regarding when apartments must be repainted. New York City, for instance, needs apartment units to be repainted every three years. In California, landlords can’t subtract from security deposits when interior paint is over two years old, and they repaint it over. More specifically in West Hollywood, flat owners should repaint every four years in a minimum. Apartments are often repainted from the transitional period when tenancy changes.

Apartment Repainting Responsibility

Ask about getting your apartment’s interior walls repainted when they become trapped or marred by smoke or other damage. In general, it is the landlord’s duty to address issues of normal wear and tear, such as worn paint caused by furniture against a wall, as well as larger issues, such as peeling paint which comes as a result of a leaking pipe. It is usually considered the renter’s duty to paint marks or gouges in the walls caused from going in or out.

Interior Paint Lifespan

An expert paint job done with high quality paint can be expected to last for many years. Apartment owners, even though, most likely will have their employees use the cheapest paint potential to cover their ceilings and walls. Although perfectly nice to use, cheap interior wall and ceiling paints may just last a couple years before repainting is needed. What’s more, flat ceilings and walls have a tendency to get covered by flat or semi-gloss paints in neutral colours, such as white or beige. Lighter colors don’t work well at hiding dirt and grime that accumulates through ordinary living.


Your flat lease may include language indicating when remodelling needs to be done and if it is allowed to be done under any circumstances by the tenant. In some specific cases, your landlord may reduce your rent for the month should you repaint your flat on your own when it is demanded. Make sure your choice of paint color is accepted by the landlord if it is not the normal neutral tones. Otherwise, you may lose a portion of your security deposit if your landlord should use a number of coats of paint to pay the dark purple or black walls once you move out.

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Comparing Bosch, Thermador and Viking Dishwashers

Bosch, Thermador and Viking manufacture premium dishwashers which, at the upper end of their product lines, may cost several times as far as standard consumer-grade dishwashers. For the money, you are going to get fancy features like customizable front panels, stainless-steel tubs, sophisticated wash cycles, and quiet operation. Precisely how much fanciness you’ll get for your money, however, varies considerably between both brands.

Bosch Product Line

Of the three brands, Bosch offers the most diversity. In all, the company’s 2014 product lineup comprises 52 dishwasher versions, which range from the Ascenta show on the very low end to the 800 Plus series in the upper end of the scale. Although the Ascenta versions aren’t that quiet by premium dishwasher criteria, the costlier Bosch dishwashers are the most popular one of the three manufacturers; the top-of-the-line 800 Plus series versions operate at 38 to 39 decibels, an industry-leading level of quiet. Characteristics on the high-end Bosch models incorporate a third stand, interior lighting, an integrated water softener, plus a sign that jobs a light on the floor once the dishwasher is running — a feature that’s especially useful within an exceptionally quiet machine.

Thermador Dishwashers

Thermador does not boast quite as broad a choice as Bosch does, as well as its low-end versions are considerably pricier than Bosch’s least expensive dishwashers. Thermador offers 12 dishwasher versions across four distinct product series, which range from the low end Emerald lineup to the high-end Star-Sapphire line. Even in the Emerald level, Thermador dishwashers incorporate some luxury features, like a proposed indicator light, along with the Rainbow models are somewhat quieter than Bosch’s Ascenta versions. At the costly end of the product range, Thermador’s feature set is similar to that of those high-end Bosch versions, but the Thermador Star-Sapphire dishwashers are moderately more expensive than the Bosch 800 Plus series.

Viking Dishwashers

Viking offers the most limited product line of those three manufacturers, together with five custom-panel versions, one stainless-steel model, and two specialist versions. Compared to the Bosch and Thermador machines, Viking grills are noisy; several of those Viking versions are rated at 50 decibels, just like the much cheaper Bosch Ascenta versions, and none of the Viking grills is more silent than 46 decibels. The Viking grills also lack a few of the luxury features the other two manufacturers offer, like a third rack and a water softener.

Product Tests

In July of 2013,”Consumer Reports” issued a listing of 51 leading dishwasher selections, and of those selections, 34 of the recommended versions were made by Bosch. The listing rated the Bosch washers tremendously for clean quality, energy efficiency and cycle length. The book has been less enthusiastic about Viking dishwashers; a 2012 overview of the Viking D3 RDDB301 concluded that the version’s fair wash quality and energy efficiency didn’t warrant its high price.

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How Much Material to Purchase to Generate a Duvet?

A duvet itself usually is filled with down or polyfill and bought without a cover. Typically made of sheet-replacing cotton for comfortable sleeping, duvet covers also allow for the design opportunity of introducing colour or print to some bedroom program. Making a duvet cover for a double bed starts with choosing suitable fabric and knowing how much fabric to buy.

Measure to Be Sure

A duvet should cover the faces of the mattress and also extend down past the top of the box spring by at least 1 inch. Measure from the top of the box spring, up to the surface of the mattress, across the top and down to the top of the box spring on the other side. Add 2 inches to this measurement for the finished ribbon width. Measure from the top of the box spring at the foot of the mattress , up to the top of the mattress and up to the head of the bed. Add 1 inch for this for the length of this duvet. Record these measurements as width by length. For instance, using a mattress 12 inches deep to a double bed that measures 39 inches wide and 75 inches long, the completed duvet measurements should be 65 inches wide and 88 inches long. Purchase the duvet. If you are using an already bought duvet, then measure it to the length and width.

Know Your Fabric

You will need two pieces of fabric that measure the completed duvet measurements plus seam allowances. After the case, you will need two pieces of fabric 66 inches wide and 89 inches long. A set sheet may provide a single piece of fabric big enough to cut this piece, but if you are using 45-inch-wide fashion fabric or 54-inch-wide drapery fabric, the fabric must be sewn together, making pieces wide enough to hold the inner cloth. Consider this when selecting the fabric, and think about the washability and comfort of this fabric, too. A duvet adds two layers of covering to a bed, together with the filler, and should you use thick or heavy fabric for the duvet, then it increases the warmth and weight of the bed coverings. If you’d like a washable duvet, then be sure that the fabric has some polyester content to help prevent wrinkles when laundering, but remember that polyester adds to the warmth of this cover more than normal fibers would.

How Much to Buy

Divide the essential cut width of this duvet from the width of the fabric you’ve selected and round up the figure. This is the range of pieces of fabric required for each of the top and undersides of the duvet. For instance, if the trimming width must be 66 inches wide along with your preferred fabric is 45 inches, then you need two pieces of fabric for the top of the quilt. The duration of every piece is equivalent to the cut length of this duvet. After the case, you need 178 inches of 45-inch-wide fabric5 or 5 yards for each of the top and underside.

Save Some Cash

You don’t need a seam running down the center of the duvet. Plan to get one long piece down the center, and cut the remaining piece in half lengthwise; sew these pieces to both sides of the center section. With careful preparation, you could have the ability to cut back the quantity of fabric you want. For instance, when using 54-inch fabric on a twin duvet, then you need to add 6 inches to each side of the center strip to produce the piece the needed 66 inches wide. It’s possible to cut four of these additions from one additional width, so rather than needing four widths of cloth to the top and underside, you need just three: two for the center pieces and one cut into four long strips to the side extensions, which saves nearly 2 1/2 yards of fabric.

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Electricity Can a Toilet Fan Usage?

One 20-amp circuit meets most of the demands in your bathroom — unless you put in energy-gobbling space heaters, towel warmers and other appliances. Air is removed by ventilation fans from toilets, clearing your mirror in addition to helping to prevent mold growth. The electricity use of easy fans may be akin to a single light bulb, whilst significantly more energy can be used by fan units with heaters and lights.

Fans and Features

Basic ventilation units that are fan-only may use as little as about 6 watts, for models, while 60 g or more is frequently used around by many normal units. Generally, electricity usage is connected to airflow, measured in cubic feet per minute (cfm) and also the enthusiast’s energy-efficiency. Mix units or some fans with heaters and lights may require energy. By way of example, 1,500 watts may be used by a heating unit onto a lover but just whenever the heater is on; why combination units frequently have several switches for operation that’s.

Rating Your Fan

Energy efficiency for ventilation fans is expressed in its own”efficiency” amount, a measure of how much air the fan moves per watt of electricity it consumes; the greater the number the greater. To meet Energy Star minimum standards, a bathroom fan has to have an efficiency level of 1.4 for smaller fans (up to 89 cfm) plus a level of 2.8 for bigger fans (90 to 500 cfm). Fans that are highly effective may have amounts up of 13.

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How to eradicate Scum in the Grove

The more you put off cleaning soap scum — the buildup of soap, minerals, dead skin, dirt and body oil — the more difficult it becomes to eliminate. Fortunately, you have quite a few alternatives in regards to cleaning soap scum off your shower door and walls. Specially formulated cleansers are available in grocery store aisles, but you may also create your bathtub sparkle using greener and less expensive techniques.


Pour 1 cup of white vinegar into a spray bottle. If desired, dilute the vinegar with 1 cup water and add 1 tablespoon dishwashing fluid.

Spray the bathtub generously. Permit the vinegar to sit for 15 minutes. Don’t use this mixture on stone showers. It’s safe for tile.

Scrub the shower using a wet scrub brush. If necessary, scrub round the door frame and handles using a toothbrush. Implement more vinegar remedy as needed.

Rinse the bathtub with warm water and dry with a chamois cloth or squeegee.

Baking Soda and Abrasives

Mix 1 cup of baking soda with enough water to form a thick paste. If desired, use a industrial abrasive cleanser instead. Don’t use this mixture on stone showers. It’s safe for tile.

Turn on the shower to wet the door and walls. Turn it off as soon as the shower is moist.

Dip a scrub brush to the paste and apply the paste to the door and walls. Allow it to sit for five minutes.

Rinse the scrub brush and scrub again, using a toothbrush for the door frame and handles if needed.

Rinse the shower with warm water and dry with a chamois cloth or squeegee.

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How to Clean & Restore Shine on Bathroom Tiles

Dull, grungy bathroom tiles can mean the difference between a bathroom sanctuary and an unsanitary environment. Bathroom tiles lose their glow and shine through every-day tear and wear, as well as exposure to dirt, soap scum, water stains and other environmental aspects. Various techniques — from natural to heavy duty therapies — help restore shine to your tiles so that you can reclaim your bathroom haven.

Routine Care

Routine care and maintenance of your bathroom tiles helps preserve their characteristic sheen. Regularly wax or wax your tiles with 2 tablespoons of all-purpose cleanser blended into a gallon of hot water. For extra shine, dry the area with a microfiber cloth, buffing to a glossy finish. For bathtub tiles and other especially grimy areas, pour this solution into a spray bottle, spritz and wait at least 15 minutes for it to place. Wipe clean using a moist sponge to show bright, sparkling tiles.

Natural Solutions

Both baking soda and vinegar possess a variety of cleaning applications, including bathroom tiles. For a simple refresh, sprinkle baking soda liberally over your tiles and sweep away to simultaneously clean and deodorize. Heavily soiled areas reap a thorough wipe down with a cleaning solution of 1/2 cup of vinegar, 1/2 cup of ammonia and 1/4 cup of a borate detergent combined into a gallon of warm water. While natural solutions provide gentler options, wear gloves since these can be harsh on delicate skin.

Obtaining at Grout

Shiny tiles seem awful when adjacent to grungy grout. Clean stained grout by producing a natural paste of equal parts cream of tartar and lemon juice. Spot-clean particularly dirty areas with an old toothbrush to apply the paste before rinsing using a moist sponge. For larger areas, a wash brush with soft bristles avoids scratching or dulling the glazed surface. A mixture of equal parts baking soda, warm salt and water also efficiently cleans tile. Larger jobs may need stronger methods: all-purpose cleaners efficiently eliminate most grout stains, but be careful to seek out non-abrasive cleansers.

Rough Treatments

Hard water leaves tiles obscured by awful mineral deposits and soap scum. A lime scale remover — accessible at large supermarkets and discount department stores — effectively dissolves and removes the effects of hard water. Look for mild formulas that don’t strip protective tile finishes or cause harm to humans, pets or the environment. Warmed vinegar spritzed directly onto scaly deposits and left to sit, helps to loosen and eliminate these deposits without using harsh chemicals or abrasives.

Heavy Duty Shine

When you need heavy-duty shine in your bathroom tiles, then you can employ a hint of the housekeeping commerce: spray furniture wax or lemon oil above the surface and buff with a soft, microfiber cloth. When the furniture polish is totally buffed away, gleaming tiles remain. Avoid using furniture wax or lemon oil on shower and bathtub flooring, because these surfaces become dangerously slick with its program.

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How to Clean A metallic Lamp

A metal lamp is exactly like every accessory in a house; it has to be cleaned regularly so as to look its very best. Unless it’s treated with a protective layer, a metal lamp will even tarnish when exposed to atmosphere with time. Cleaning, polishing and protecting your lamp is easy as soon as you develop a routine.

Gunk and Grime

Regardless of whether your metal lamp is constructed from brass, nickel, steel, bronze or copper, the initial cleaning is comparable. Wipe down the metal portions of the lamp with warm, soapy water and a soft cloth. If done consistently, at least once every fourteen days, this helps avoid a buildup of soil, grime and indoor pollutants that collect and cause larger problems. For extremely dirty lamps, rub lightly with additional fine 0000-grade steel wool to loosen the accumulation, using a medium-bristle toothbrush to reach tough spots.

Tarnished Reputation

Utilize metal polishing cleaner to tackle deeply tarnished lamps. Liquid polishes for brass and copper are specially formulated for the unique qualities of each alloy. Follow manufacturer directions, which usually involves coating the metal with the polish, letting it dry, then hardened and buffing with a clean, soft cloth. If you find an accumulation of polish in any crevices, then rinse it off with warm water, then dry thoroughly.

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How to Make a Lawnmower Bagger Zipper Work Better

Although a bagging lawnmower is a handy piece of equipment to get, a sticky or malfunctioning zipper can make emptying the bag hard. That is when mowing suddenly becomes more of a pain than a pleasure. Over time, dust and other debris may accumulate in the teeth of the zipper, and exposure to the elements may cause the zipper to stick. Instead of replacing the bagger, you may simply take care of the zipper in a way that returns it to full functionality.

Scrub the teeth of the zipper aggressively using a scrub brush to remove dirt and other debris. Brush the zipper from the two of its sides and in the two directions to remove particles inside and outside the bag. Shake out the bag to disperse all of remaining grit.

Spritz the teeth of the zipper lightly with a spray-on penetrating oil which also includes lubricant and water repellant. In addition to allowing the pull tab of the zipper to move freely, the application will safeguard the teeth of the zipper from moisture and protect against corrosion of metal parts.

Wipe all excess penetrating oil from the teeth of the zipper with a paper towel. Surplus oil on the zipper may transfer to your hands, making them slippery and cause unsafe operating conditions when you use the mower.

Repeat these jobs at the first symptom of a sticky zipper on the lawnmower bagger.

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How to Touch Up Particle Board Trim to Paint a Dresser

Examine the ground of a lumber mill and you will see just what particle board is made of: sawdust, wood chips and shavings, all held together with adhesive and formed into panels to create furniture. Although sturdy and cost-effective, particle board furniture is often more tedious to repair than solid wood; once it cracks, the sawdust and shavings crumble. This is especially true in regards to trim bits, which tend to break easily. With some patience and superior wood filler, you can fix the particle board trim on your dresser before you refinish it with paint — and in the long run, it’ll look fresh.

Inspect the damage to find out if any bigger pieces could be reattached to the dresser. Clean out the portion of the dresser where the bit attaches with a vacuum and damp cloth, then allow it to dry.

Take two pieces of scrap timber, at least provided that the broken bit of trim on the dresser, and cover one side of every piece with vinyl tape. Apply a small bit of wood glue to the broken bit of trim and then reattach it to the dresser. Set the scrap bits, together with the taped sides right on the dresser’s trim, on both sides of the patch (as applicable), then use clamps to hold the bits in place till the adhesive dries. The scrap timber creates enough pressure to get a tight seal and ensures the trim is reattached straight, while the tape on the scrap timber keeps the wood adhesive from sticking to it.

Use a stiff brush to remove any loose particles. Then vacuum the region thoroughly. This will guarantee the wood filler seals properly together with the dresser, giving you the smoothest and most durable repair.

Mix wood filler, according to the package directions, in a small dish or pan. Starting from the center of the damage, put on the filler to the dresser with a putty knife. Apply the product a little higher than the surface of the dresser to account for the natural shrinkage which takes place when filler dries. Let it dry.

Apply masking tape around the patch, only on the outside, to safeguard the surrounding particle board. Although you’ll be painting the whole dresser, scuffing up the end of the undamaged timber can cause variations in paint texture. Masking allows you to sand the filler smooth without roughening up the smooth end of the remainder of the timber.

Sand the patch with medium grit sandpaper so that it is flush with the surface of the dresser. If the filler shrunk down so that it no longer suits the damaged region, apply another coat; let this dry, then sand it.

Sand the region lightly with fine sandpaper to smooth it out, and wipe everything down with a moist cloth. Remove the masking tape. Then paint the dresser just as planned.

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The Difference in Hawthorn Berries, Leaves & Flowers

The berries, leaves and flowers of the 200 species of hawthorn trees vary enough to give each a dash of distinction all of its own. Whether you are partial to colour or shape or searching for a specific utilization when designing your landscape, the many varieties of hawthorns provide both diversity and versatility.


Hawthorn trees bear fruit known as haws that resemble miniature apples or berries, the majority of which are bright red. The black hawthorn (Crataegus douglasii Lindl), also called the Douglas hawthorn, found in U.S. Department of Agriculture plant hardiness zones 3 to 9, create purplish-black fruit. Certain hawthorn trees, such as the dark hawthorn, create fruit no larger than one-half inch, while some others, like the “Autumn Glory” (Crataegus “Autumn Glory”), growing in USDA zones 6 to 9, make fruit between 1 1/2 and 3 inches.


Many hawthorn leaves are ovate or oblong with slight variations. The ovate leaves of the English hawthorn (Crataegus laevigata), found in USDA zones 4 to 8, are shallowly lobed. The oblong leaves of the “Carriere” (Crataegus × lavallei “Carrierei”), and also found in zones 4 to 8, are toothed. Some hawthorns, such as the “Autumn Glory” and the Oriental hawthorn (Crataegus pinnitifida), that rises in USDA zones 6 to 10, create pinnate leaves. Meanwhile, the Washington hawthorn (Crataegus phaenopyrum), found in USDA zones 4 to 8, has lobed deltoid leaves. Leaf color ranges from medium to dark green and all of hawthorns produce fall shade before falling. The “Autumn Glory” has dark green leaves which change to orange or red, while the Russian hawthorn (Crataegus ambigua), found in USDA zones 4 to 8, has medium green leaves which does not only turn orange or red, but also gold or mulitcolored.


The showy flowers of the hawthorn range from white to pink to rosy red and typically blossom in the spring. The “Autumn Glory” and the Russian hawthorn are one of the ones that produce only white flowers. The English hawthorn variety “Crimson Cloud” (Crataegus laevigata “Crimson Cloud”) produces red or lavender blossoms, while its variety, the “Double Pink” (Crataegus laevigata “Double Pink”) blossoms in pink. Some hawthorns blossom in others seasons as well as spring, such as the Washington hawthorn, which might blossom in the summer, and the “Majestic Beauty” Indian hawthorn (Rhaphiolepis × “Montic”), that blooms in the autumn, spring or winter from USDA zones 7 to 11.

Other Differences

Many hawthorn trees are helpful for screening, but some, like the Chinese, English, “Autumn Glory” and “Carriere” varieties, can also be appropriate for pleaching, or weaving together to make a living archway or wall. Others, such as the “Majestic Beauty” Indian hawthorn and the Washington hawthorn might be pruned into hedges. Hawthorn trees typically like full sun, although some, like the English hawthorn and the “Majestic Beauty,” will tolerate partial shade. Hawthorns generally prefer moist soil, but the Indian and the Washington varieties are exceptionally drought-resistant.

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